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Correlation: Any association between two random variables. Correlations are symmetric. Causation: A change to one variable, the cause, changes the effect. Confounders:

Geometric Brownian Motion

Brownian motion is random fluctuations. Geometrical Brownian motion is some randomness and drift, usually in a positive direction. It is a random walk but increases over time.

The Brownian motion is one of the fundamental building blocks of the Black-Scholes formula. The ratio of the share prices is the LogNormal distribution if it is modeled as a Geometric Brownian Motion. Video explaining Brownian Motion

Probability Yardstick