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Politics

Socialism

Important figures

François-Noël Babeuf Also known as Gracchus Babeuf, was a significant figure in French revolutionary politics. He is often considered one of the first advocates for communism, even before the term was coined. Babeuf believed in the abolition of private property and the equal distribution of resources. He argued for a society where wealth and property were shared equally among all citizens, a radical departure from the prevailing political thought of his time. His ideas were influential in the development of socialist and communist thought, and his "Conspiracy of Equals" in 1796 was one of the first organized attempts to establish a communist society. However, this led to his arrest and execution, making him a martyr figure for many future revolutionaries.

Eduard Bernstein A prominent figure in the socialist movement and a leading theorist of the Social Democratic Party of Germany. He is best known for his development of "revisionist" socialism, which argued for the gradual and democratic reform of capitalism into socialism, rather than a violent revolution. Bernstein believed that the working class could achieve its goals through democratic means within the existing political system. His ideas, often summarized as "evolutionary socialism" or "reformism," marked a significant departure from the revolutionary socialism of Marx and Engels. Despite criticism from orthodox Marxists, Bernstein's pragmatic approach had a profound influence on the development of social democracy in Europe.

  • Known for: Founding democratic socialism, critique of revolutionary Marxism
  • Works: "Evolutionary Socialism"

Rosa Luxemburg A pivotal figure in the realm of revolutionary socialism, Rosa Luxemburg was known for her staunch critique of reformism. She believed in the necessity of a revolution to bring about socialism, as opposed to gradual reforms within the existing capitalist system. Her works, such as "The Accumulation of Capital" and "Reform or Revolution", provide a deep analysis of capitalism and a compelling argument for revolutionary socialism. A lot of soixante-huitards identified with the Luxenburg-Trotskist thought of communism.

  • Known for: Revolutionary socialism, critique of reformism
  • Works: "The Accumulation of Capital", "Reform or Revolution"

Antonio Gramsci Antonio Gramsci is renowned for his theory of cultural hegemony, which posits that the ruling class maintains power not just through violence or economic coercion, but also ideologically, through a shared sense of what is 'common sense' or 'natural'. He was also instrumental in founding the Italian Communist Party. His "Prison Notebooks", written while he was imprisoned by the Fascist regime in Italy, are considered seminal works in Marxist philosophy and political theory.

  • Known for: Theory of cultural hegemony, founding the Italian Communist Party
  • Works: "Prison Notebooks"

Michael Harrington: Known for his influence on democratic socialism in the United States, Michael Harrington brought attention to poverty in America with his groundbreaking work, "The Other America". He argued that democratic socialism was the best way to address social inequality. His later work, "Socialism: Past and Future", provides an insightful analysis of the history of socialism and its potential future directions.

  • Known for: Influence on democratic socialism in the United States
  • Works: "The Other America", "Socialism: Past and Future"

Communism

Communism is defined as a society without property rights. Communism is a theory within socialism.

Marxist-Leninism

  • A pretty good book on the Marxist-Lenists in Norway.
  • You need to read Orwell before you make any bombastic comments on Communism.
  • Lewis turning point happened right after Marx finished Das Capital

Fascism

I found this video quite helpful when it comes to the definition of fascism and what it entails.

Democracy

Links

Thoughts

  • Politics is weird, man; I got my definition of Fascism from a guy on YouTube.
  • Hitchens's life biography is very good when it comes to understanding some of the trends and political movements in the 20th century. Good name as well, Hitch 22